From the President
The Missouri Southern State University Statement of Values focuses on a complete commitment to the “academic, personal and career success” of students. We take this charge very seriously and work daily to create the very best university experience possible for our terrific student body.
As a student at Missouri Southern you will find yourself surrounded by talented and energetic professors who are dedicated to guiding students toward the success they desire. You will find this highly gifted group of professionals to be totally committed to providing the very best learning environment possible. The outstanding academic programs they provide are designed to prepare you to compete in a global society and we have every confidence that you will be perfectly prepared to meet the many challenges of a changing world when you complete your program of study.
In addition to outstanding academic programs, we also provide a number of student support services to assist you on your higher education journey. These include assistance provided by the dedicated staff of the Financial Aid Office, Career Services Office, and the Advising, Counseling and Testing Services. You should always feel welcome to ask questions of these individuals because they are truly committed to helping you succeed.
The campus also hosts numerous student groups that sponsor a myriad of activities throughout the year. The student body is represented by a very active Student Senate that participates in a variety of campus affairs. Students preferring to live on campus enjoy a lively and engaging residence hall community that provides convenient dining facilities and recreational activities. Additionally, the Beimdiek Recreation Center is available to all students and is one of the most attractive and well-equipped recreation facilities in the area. We also have thriving athletic programs, and you can enjoy the fun and excitement of cheering the Lions on to victory in a number of sports.
An emphasis on understanding and appreciating other cultures, international issues, and global perspectives, all combine to support the very important international element of the Missouri Southern mission. This focus on learning to live and succeed in a global community creates a rich sense of diversity on campus and in the surrounding community. As a student here you will have regular opportunities for international studies abroad and many students throughout the years have gained enormous benefits from participating in these travel-to-learn experiences.
We believe that the programs offered at Missouri Southern do a fantastic job of preparing students for the “academic, personal and career success” identified in our Statement of Values. We invite you to join us on this exciting journey.
If you have questions, please call the Admissions Office at 417-625-9378 or 866-818-6778.
Alan D. Marble, Ph.D.
To the Student
If you’re entering the university for the first time or even coming back after several years’ absence, you’ll need information in this catalog. It’s not the most exciting bedtime reading, but it does pack a lot of information about our academic programs into your university experience.
This catalog and our helpful staff can answer your questions, but here are answers to questions students frequently ask:
- Can I get financial help with university costs?
Yes, a full range of financial aid programs are available to qualified students. Becca Diskin, Director of Student Financial Aid and her staff can provide you with information and applications in Hearnes Hall, 417-625-9325, firstname.lastname@example.org. (Financial Aid)
- I haven’t decided on a major yet. What do I do?
Southern has trained academic advisors to help you discover what your best interests and attributes might be. Visit with Faustina Abrahams, Director of Advising, Counseling and Testing Services (ACTS), Hearnes Hall, 417-625-9324, email@example.com. (ACTS) Information on career and salary for all credentials offered by Missouri public institutions of higher education can be found on MOScores
- I’m concerned about the transition from high school to college. Is there someone to help?
Yes, the Advising, Counseling and Testing Services (ACTS) department can help here too, as well as the instructor and course assistant in your University Experience UE 100 class. Visit with Faustina Abrahams, First-Year Advising Coordinator, Hearnes Hall room 314, 417-625-9521, firstname.lastname@example.org. or Teresa Thompson, Director, First-Year Experience Program, Hearnes Hall Room 315, 417-625-9731, email@example.com. (ACTS and/or First Year Experience Program)
- Do you have an Honors Program?
Southern has an excellent and challenging Honors Program, which includes opportunities for international travel. Talk to Michael Howarth, Director of Honors Program, Taylor Hall 206, 417-625-3005, firstname.lastname@example.org. (Honors Programs)
- What activities and organizations are available?
A host of special events, student activities and departmental organizations are available throughout the year. Drop by the Student Activities Office, Billingsly Student Center, 210. Or contact Craig Gullett at 417-625-9346 or email@example.com (Student Activities. See also individual departments.)
Additional information is available at the Southern website:
The State of Missouri has designated Missouri Southern State University, through special legislation, as “a statewide institution of international or global education.” The university is charged with developing “such academic support programs and public service activities it deems necessary and appropriate to establish international or global education as a distinctive theme of its mission.”
This “international mission,” as it is commonly known, enables students to participate in a breadth of international experiences that will prepare them to succeed in an ever-changing global economy.
MSSU provides a variety of short-term and semester-long study abroad programs, including an international student teaching experience for teacher education majors. In order to make its study abroad programs more accessible and affordable, MSSU awards qualifying students $1,000 grants for faculty-led short-term trips and $1,250 grants for students spending an entire semester or year abroad.
Each fall, MSSU selects a particular country or region of the world to become the focus of intensive study. The “themed semesters” bring the world to the university and the community, and allow every student to have a global experience without leaving the campus. Lectures, concerts, plays, films, readings, art exhibits, and other cultural activities from the featured country permeate the fall semester and result in the students becoming true global citizens.
Robust modern language offerings, including courses and degree programs in Spanish, French, Japanese, and Chinese, give students the opportunity to increase their cultural competency and become more marketable in a competitive workplace. Becoming proficient in more than one language will open many doors for MSSU graduates and expand their worldview.
Majors in International Studies and International Business and other related areas provide a substantial foundation for professional careers in diplomacy, law, education, international business and commerce, journalism, the military, research, public health, human service organizations, and much more. Opportunities in most of these professions are available in both the public and private sectors in the United States and abroad. The majors are also a good foundation for graduate study in such diverse areas as international law, business, history, political science, and anthropology, as well as international relations, intercultural communication, peace studies, and other interdisciplinary programs.
The International English Program (IEP) provides English as a Second Language (ESL) instruction to international and resident students whose first language is not English. This supports MSSU’s mission of a strong commitment to international education by enabling more international students to attend the university. In turn, these students bring different perspectives and values to their American peers, and lifelong friendships often develop.
Student’s Guide to the Baccalaureate Degree
Non Scholae Sed Vitae Discimus “Education not for a living, but for life.”
We, the faculty at Missouri Southern, believe that you achieve a complete education through an interrelated program of study which includes the General Education/Core 42 curriculum and your major, as well as the extra-curricular opportunities that complete the total collegiate experience. We realize that over a lifetime many of you will change occupations and careers several times. While specialized knowledge in your field is essential, we believe that certain lifelong thinking and learning skills and a common body of knowledge are critical for an understanding of yourself and your larger community and for career advancement in the 21st-century marketplace. Specifically, we are committed to assist you as an undergraduate to:
- Acquire knowledge, both in breadth and depth, through exposure to a wide variety of disciplines and through majoring in your chosen field.
- Communicate with precision and style and to think clearly and critically.
- Achieve competence in quantitative skills.
- Know the methods of inquiry and thought necessary for understanding nature, society and self.
- Sharpen your awareness and appreciation of cultures around the world with their differing values, traditions and institutions.
- Develop lasting intellectual and cultural interests.
- Recognize and appreciate the importance of creativity and imagination in the human experience.
- Achieve greater social maturity and tolerance for human diversity through the experience of working closely with a wide variety of fellow students and faculty members.
- Recognize and examine the formation of personal ethical values in a diverse society.
General Education/Core 42 Curriculum
The General Education/Core 42 curriculum at Missouri Southern is a carefully designed series of courses that all students earning a bachelor’s degree must complete. It is our effort to furnish you a liberal education. But why? What about the General Education is so important that it constitutes nearly half of the credit hours necessary for your degree?
One way to answer that question is to reflect on another: What does it mean to be well-educated? While the question has generated much debate and there is no simple answer, most agree that a well-educated person possesses certain fundamental intellectual skills, a broad knowledge of the world and a deep knowledge of a particular subject. While pursuit of a major field of study furnishes knowledge in depth, it is the General Education/Core 42 curriculum that seeks to equip you with the intellectual skills and the breadth of knowledge that characterize well-educated and socially responsible individuals.
Goals of the General Education/Core 42 Curriculum
In compliance with the Missouri Department of Higher Education (MDHE) and statewide policy, Missouri Southern State University provides a block of general education/Core 42 courses that meet the state-level curricular goals. There are four basic competencies (Valuing, Managing Information, Communicating, and Higher-Order Thinking) as well as four knowledge areas (Social and Behavioral Sciences, Communications, Humanities and Fine Arts, Mathematics, and Life and Physical Sciences).
Communicating: Communicating is the development of students’ ability to communicate effectively through oral, written, and digital channels using the English language, quantitative, and other symbolic Updated April 27, 2018 4 systems. Students should be able to write and speak with thoughtfulness, clarity, coherence, and persuasiveness; read and listen critically; and select channels appropriate to the audience and message. Written communication is the development and expression of ideas in writing. Written communication involves learning to work in many genres and styles. It can involve working with many different writing technologies, and mixing texts, data, and images. Written communication abilities develop through iterative experiences across the curriculum. Oral communication is a prepared, purposeful presentation designed to increase knowledge, to foster understanding, or to promote change in the listeners’ attitudes, values, beliefs, or behaviors. Oral communication takes many forms.
Higher-Order Thinking: Higher Order Thinking is the development of students’ ability to distinguish among opinions, facts, and inferences; to identify underlying or implicit assumptions; to make informed judgments; to solve problems by applying evaluative standards; and demonstrate the ability to reflect upon and refine those problem-solving skills. This involves creative thinking, critical thinking, and quantitative literacy. Creative thinking is both the capacity to combine or synthesize existing ideas, images, or expertise in original ways and the experience of thinking, reacting, and working in an imaginative way characterized by a high degree of innovation, divergent thinking, and risk taking. Creative thinking, as it is fostered within higher education, must be distinguished from less focused types of creativity such as, for example, the creativity exhibited by a small child’s drawing, which stems not from an understanding of connections, but from an ignorance of boundaries. While demonstrating solid knowledge of the domain’s parameters, the creative thinker, at the highest levels of performance, pushes beyond those boundaries in new, unique, or atypical recombinations, uncovering or critically perceiving new syntheses and using or recognizing creative risk-taking to achieve a solution. Critical thinking is a habit of mind characterized by the comprehensive exploration of issues, ideas, artifacts, and events before accepting or formulating an opinion or conclusion. Critical thinking is transdisciplinary, and success in all disciplines requires habits of inquiry and analysis that share common attributes. Successful critical thinkers from all disciplines increasingly need to be able to apply those habits in various and changing situations encountered in all walks of life. Quantitative Literacy (QL) is a “habit of mind,” competency, and comfort in working with numerical data. Individuals with strong QL skills possess the ability to reason and solve quantitative problems from a wide array of authentic contexts and everyday life situations. They understand and can create sophisticated arguments supported by quantitative evidence and they can clearly communicate those arguments in a variety of formats (using words, tables, graphs, mathematical equations, etc., as appropriate).
Valuing: Valuing is the ability to understand the moral and ethical values of a diverse society, and to understand that many courses of action are guided by value judgments about the way things ought to be. Students should recognize how values develop, how value judgments influence actions, and how informed decision-making can be improved through the consideration of personal values as well as the values of others. They should be able to make informed decisions through the identification of personal values and the values of others and through an understanding how such values develop. They should be able to analyze the ethical implications of choices made on the basis of these values.
Managing Information: Managing Information is ability to locate, organize, store, retrieve, evaluate, synthesize, and annotate information from print, electronic, and other sources in preparation for solving problems and making informed decisions. Through the effective management of information, students should be able to design, evaluate, and implement a strategy to answer an open-ended question or achieve a desired goal.
Social and Behavioral Sciences State-Level Goal: To develop students’ understanding of themselves and the world around them through study of content and the processes used by historians and social and behavioral scientists to discover, describe, explain, and predict human behavior and social systems. Students acquire an understanding of the diversities and complexities of the cultural and social world, past and present, and come to an informed sense of self and others. As a part of this goal, institutions of higher education include a course of instruction in the Constitution of the United States and of the state of Missouri and in American history and institutions (Missouri Revised Statute 170.011.1).
Written Communications State-Level Goal: To prepare students to communicate effectively with writing that exhibits solid construction resulting from satisfactory planning, discourse, and review. Students will understand the importance of proficient writing for success in the classroom and the workforce.
Oral Communications State-Level Goal: To prepare students to communicate effectively with oral presentations that demonstrate appropriate planning and expressive skills. Students will understand the role of public speaking for success in the classroom and society
Humanities and Fine Arts: Well-educated people develop an understanding of the ways in which humans have addressed their condition through imaginative work in the humanities and fine arts. They deepen their understanding of how that imaginative process is informed and limited by social, cultural, linguistic and historical circumstances and by learning to appreciate the world of the creative imagination as a form of knowledge.
Natural Sciences State-Level Goal: To develop students’ understanding of the principles and laboratory procedures of the natural sciences (Life and Physical) and to cultivate their abilities to apply the empirical methods of scientific inquiry. Students should understand how scientific discovery changes theoretical views of the world, informs our imaginations, and shapes human history. Students should also understand that science is shaped by historical and social contexts.
Mathematics State-Level Goal: To develop students’ understanding of fundamental mathematical concepts and their applications. Students should develop a level of quantitative literacy that would enable them to make decisions and solve problems and which could serve as a basis for continued learning.
Humanities and Fine Arts State-Level Goal: To develop students’ understanding of the ways in which humans have addressed their condition through imaginative work in the humanities and fine arts; to deepen their understanding of how that imaginative process is informed and limited by social, cultural, linguistic, and historical circumstances; and to appreciate the world of the creative imagination as a form of knowledge
In addition to the statewide general education/Core 42 goals, Missouri Southern has two Institutional Goals (International Cultural Studies and Health and Wellness.)
International Cultural Studies: Well-educated people develop an understanding of how cultures and societies around the world are formed, sustained and evolve. Students should understand world affairs, international issues and cultures other than their own as seen through the history, geography, language, literature, philosophy, economics or politics of the cultures. Students will acquire empathy for the values and perspectives of cultures other than their own and an awareness of the international and multicultural influences in their own lives.
Health and Wellness: Well-educated people develop the knowledge and self-management skills that will assist them in adopting healthy lifestyles. This encompasses all areas of wellness: physical, emotional, spiritual, social, intellectual and financial. Students will understand the relationship between lifestyle management, quality of life and societal health and productivity.
Thanks to technological resources and the commitment of our faculty, students have the opportunity to complete many of the General Education courses in modes that suit their individual schedules and needs. While Missouri Southern offers all of the General Education courses in traditional classroom settings, students who possess the skills and responsibility required for success in General Education courses offered in non-traditional modes, such as on-line and hybrid courses, will be able to do so.
The University offers more than 100 majors in a wide variety of fields. Pursuing of your major will furnish you with the knowledge in depth that is also characteristic of a well-educated person. Some students come to Southern with a clearly defined idea of their major; others come uncertain, relying on their exposure to the General Education curriculum and on experimenting with a few elective courses to help them choose.
In either case, when you emerge with your baccalaureate degree, you will have mastered a body of knowledge that sets you apart from well-educated people in other fields. Often it is your mastery of a particular discipline that makes you of great value in the workplace. Not only do you emerge knowing a great deal, but you also emerge armed with the power to learn more, to extend your knowledge.
Special Features of Missouri Southern
A comprehensive education fostering life-long learning is the aim of our liberal arts curriculum. Southern strives to present the best in higher learning. The following features distinguish our university.
Emphasis on Teaching: The heart of Missouri Southern is that of an undergraduate university where the interaction between teacher and student is of primary importance in the learning experience. Here you will be taught by professors with degrees from the most prestigious universities across the nation.
Emphasis on International: The world is changing rapidly and dramatically. The future will belong to those who have an understanding and appreciation for the world beyond the boundaries of their country. That is why Missouri Southern has chosen to emphasize a global perspective throughout our entire curriculum and wherever possible to add an international dimension to our courses.
Enrichment Programs: Your comprehensive education is enriched through a variety of special programs including the Honors Program, internships and independent study opportunities, involvement with the student media and “themed” semesters that focus on a country, continent or section of the world. Study abroad opportunities include the Summer in Sweden art program; language immersion programs in France, Germany, Mexico and Spain; and semester-long exchange programs throughout the world. Short-term study abroad experiences, including comparative trips and on-site classes, introduce students to aspects of another country’s culture in order to expand their views beyond their global perspective.
Total Collegiate Experience: A great deal of college education happens outside the classroom. An array of extracurricular activities is offered to meet almost every academic and social interest. In addition, numerous services are available for the student to meet educational and personal needs.
Assessment of Outcomes: Missouri Southern continually assesses the effectiveness of its programs, including the General Education/Core 42 curriculum and all majors. The assessment information is used to revise and to improve our programs, as well as keep the curriculum dynamic and relevant.
Diverse Student Body: Students at Southern represent a wide variety of ages and places of origin. The sizable enrollment of nontraditional students (those over 25) and international students is a great advantage. On our campus, students come to see each other as friends and allies and learn to develop healthy and supportive relationships with a variety of people.
Flexible Class Scheduling: Day and evening classes, hybrid classes and delayed start classes are available to provide flexible scheduling. Distance Learning provides a variety of forms of access to education to meet the needs of today’s students. Missouri Southern also offers a broad selection of online programs and courses, providing diverse access to education to meet the needs of today’s students.
Our faculty and staff are always willing to help you to make the most of your college experience. Don’t hesitate to ask. We’re here for you!
Assessment of Outcomes
Goals of Assessment of Outcomes
Assessment is an ongoing, cyclical effort of identifying goals, developing programs to achieve those goals, evaluating the effectiveness of the programs, analyzing results, redefining goals and improving programs. That cycle is a basic responsibility of all faculty and administrators. Stated goals of outcomes assessment at Missouri Southern are:
- Evaluation of institutional effectiveness by research and assessment of:
- General Education/Core 42 programs and school departments
- Academic and developmental student outcomes
- Improvement of both academic and student affairs programs:
- To increase student academic and developmental outcomes
- To increase student retention and degree completion
- Provision of data needed for assessment, program review and strategic planning to fulfill the university mission
- Fulfillment of governmental mandates
In its mission, Missouri Southern is committed to developing effective programs to fulfill the needs of the students while developing knowledge, skills and positive attitudes so they can be successful and responsible citizens of a diverse world. In order to accomplish that goal, ongoing assessment is conducted not only by professors in classes offered each semester, but also by faculty and administration in program evaluation processes. The Assessment Committee, chaired by a faculty member, meets regularly with departments to review their assessment plans and findings. The Assessment Committee collaborates with the Academic Program Review Committee, the General Education Committee, and the Student Affairs Assessment Committee to ensure that student learning and operational effectiveness are continually measured, evaluated in a manner that promotes use of data for continuous quality improvement. Assessment reports are housed in WEAVE, the university’s software that serves both as a repository and reporting tool. Dissemination of assessment findings is managed through the Office of Institutional Effectiveness.
Program for Assessment of Outcomes
Importance of assessment for college accountability is underscored by a Board of Governors policy requiring that students participate in assessment activities when requested. Information obtained from standardized tests, faculty developed tests, surveys, student research, portfolio reviews, student interviews and performances is used to develop both quantitative and qualitative data needed for the analysis phase of our assessment plan. General education, academic program, and co-curricular outcomes are assessed on a regular basis by respective units in academic and student affairs. Process, rubrics, and sample findings are available on the University website for Institutional Effectiveness at https://www.mssu.edu/academics/institutional-effectiveness/processandproduct.php.
For additional information on assessment of outcomes visit the Institutional Effectiveness website at: mssu.edu/academics/institutional-effectiveness/.
Tuition and Incidental Charges Policies
Please visit our homepage at www.mssu.edu for our online Schedule of Classes that contains the most up-to-date listing of tuition and incidental costs.
The University reserves the right to change tuition and incidental costs without notice.
- Undergraduate Tuition and Incidental Costs
For all students who have registered for fall, spring or summer semesters, 100% of the semester charges must be paid by the published due date for each respective semester. Due dates can be found on the Bursar’s Office website and in the Schedule of Classes for the respective semester. Failure to remit the balance due may result in an immediate cancellation of the student’s class schedule.
Paper bills are mailed to students. However, for your up-to-date account balance, please view your account in LioNet. Students are responsible for any outstanding balance and are required to remit payment by the published due date.
It is extremely important to realize that a financial obligation is incurred at the time of enrollment. Services are rendered as of the first day of class so unless a student officially withdraws prior to that day, charges will be assessed in full. No reduction in charges according to the University refund policy will be credited to the students account until an official withdrawal is completed. Students dropped for non-payment are not relieved of their financial obligation. An official withdrawal is required.
The University has payment plans available as soon as enrollment begins each semester. For more information regarding payment plans, and what payment plan options are available, visit the Bursar’s Office website or contact the Bursar’s Office.
Students expecting their student account balance to be paid through financial aid sources must have all necessary documentation filed with the Financial Aid Office by April 1st for the Fall term and by November 1st for the Spring term in order to receive consideration for payment deferment.
Students enrolled in evening and Internet classes for regular college credit courses, applicable toward an associate or baccalaureate degree, are subject to the same charges, rules, and regulations as set forth for students attending day classes.
Appeals concerning special problems pertaining to charges should be directed in writing to the Bursar in Hearnes Hall.
- Residence Hall
As stated in the contract agreement, students will be responsible for the full semester bill at the time that all other student account charges are due. The security deposit will be refunded only if the terms of the contract have been fulfilled.
Explanation of Charges
Admission Application - a non-refundable administrative charge required upon submission of an application for admission.
Change of Class Schedule - an administrative cost charged for each class change (add or withdrawal) made after the first week of the semester.
Commencement Regalia - charged to students who are participating in commencement, non-refundable.
Graduation Application - billed upon receipt of graduation application, non-refundable.
Late Registration/Reinstatement - an administrative charge assessed to students who enroll for classes after the first full week of the semester or seek reinstatement for class schedules cancelled for non-payment.
Special Course Charges - charges for additional course materials and/or services for specific courses. Courses include, but are not limited to: art, music, education, dental hygiene, nursing, radiology and photography.
Textbook Rental - a per credit hour charge assessed for the use of rental textbooks. The University operates a rental system through the University Bookstore which allows the use of the required textbook by the student for one semester. It should be noted that some classes may require the purchase of supplemental books and materials not available through the rental system. Textbooks must be returned no later than 4 P.M., Monday following the week of finals. A book drop is located in the wall behind Billingsly Student Center for after-hours and weekend drop off. Textbooks not returned by this time will be charged to the student’s account at the retail price. This charge may be reduced to a late charge equal to the current rental charge when returned through the published late book return date. Visit www.mssu.edu/bookstore for more information.
(Except for Residence Hall Charges)
During the course of any semester, if a student finds it necessary to drop individual classes or fully withdraw from the University, the refund policy for full-term classes is as follows:
For Fall and Spring Semesters
|Prior to the end of the first two weeks of classes
|Third and fourth week
|After Wednesday of the fourth week
For Summer Semester
|Prior to the end of the first week of classes
|After first week
Withdrawal from classes during the 50% refund period means that the student will be responsible for 50% of the cost of tuition and incidental charges. Withdrawal from some classes after the fourth week, the student will be responsible for 100% of the cost of tuition and charges.
NOTE: Dates may vary for Off-Schedule classes. Withdrawal and refund information listed only pertains to full-term classes. Students must contact the Office of the Registrar for information on off-schedule courses.
To be eligible for a refund, the student must formally complete a Single Course Withdrawal form and submit it to the Office of the Registrar within the refund period. If the student is withdrawing from the University completely, he or she must complete a Total Withdrawal form with the University Financial Aid Exit Counselor within the published deadline dates. Refer to www.mssu.edu/student-affairs/registrar to view the off-schedule chart.
Failure to attend classes will not constitute a withdrawal.
NOTE: If the student withdraws after payment of any or all charges for the semester, any monies due to the student will be mailed after refund costs have been applied. However, if the University costs have been paid partially or fully by financial aid (scholarships, grants, loans, other government assistance programs, etc.) the refund monies will be first applied to the financial aid program source. Please see the repayment notice of Title IV aid paragraph below for further explanation. Once these awards have been fully refunded, any remaining balances will be forwarded to the student.
All refunds must be claimed during the term for which the refund applies. Students who feel that individual circumstances warrant exceptions to this policy may appeal in writing to the Bursar. This appeal must be made during the term for which the refund applies.
Repayment Notice for Federal Financial Aid
Students who withdraw prior to the 60% completion of the semester will be subject to repayment of part or all of their aid, as determined by federal regulations. This includes official and unofficial withdrawals stemming from student’s last date of attendance prior to the 60% of semester earned.
Students will be notified in writing of any amount due as a result of withdrawal. A hold will be placed on the student’s account until repayment is made in full.
Students must make repayment of their portion of financial aid within 45 days. Failure to make repayment within 45 days will result in:
- Referral to the federal government for collection.
- Ineligibility for federal financial aid from all colleges and universities until the overpayment of aid and interest due is paid to the U.S. Department of Education.
For policies concerning refunds for Residence Hall charges, please refer to the Residence Life contract.